Revista Colombiana
de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación

Organo Oficial de la Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación

ISSN Impreso: 0121-0041 - ISSN Electrónico: 2256-5655 - DOI: 10.28957/rcmfr

Efectos del ejercicio físico en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular que constituyen el síndrome metabólico: una alternativa para reducir su tendencia

Adrián Hernández Alonso

Resumen


El síndrome metabólico es una constelación de factores de riesgo metabólicos relacionados entre sí que aparecen directamente para promover el desarrollo de la diabetes y la enfermedad cardiovascular; se estima que más de 300 millones de personas padecen el síndrome metabólico a nivel mundial. Debido a la alta prevalencia del síndrome metabólico y de sus componentes, es necesaria la creación de nuevas estrategias a gran escala que acorten los tiempos en la generación de conocimientos y que permitan diseñar modelos de prevención y tratamiento para disminuir la prevalencia de esta entidad; y el ejercicio físico es un componente clave de tales estrategias. El objetivo de este artículo fue realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre los efectos del ejercicio físico en todos los componentes del síndrome metabólico. Para la selección de los artículos que formaron parte de la presente investigación fueron consultadas las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, MedLine, CsiELO y Cochrane. La revisión sugiere que el ejercicio físico tiene importantes efectos beneficiosos –fundamentalmente el ejercicio aeróbico–, en la mayoría de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular que constituyen el síndrome metabólico y es una alternativa eficaz tanto en su prevención como en su tratamiento.

Palabras clave


síndrome metabólico, enfermedad cardiovascular, ejercicio físico, ejercicio aeróbico, diabetes.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Alberti KGMM, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome: A Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120: 1640-1645.

Guilherme A, Virbasius JV, Puri V, Czech MP. Adipocyte dysfunctions linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 2008; 9(5):367-77.

Reaven GM: Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988; 37: 1595-1607.

Gustat J, Srinivasan SR, Elkasabany A, Berenson GS. Relation of self-rated measures of physical activity to multiple risk factors of insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002; 55: 997-1006.

Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA.2002; 287: 356-359.

Ouellet V, Marois J, Weisnagel SJ, Jacques H. Dietary cod otein improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant men and women. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30: 2816-2821.

Oh SW, Yoon YS, Lee ES, et al. Association between cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 2064-2066.

Tjonna, A.E., Lee, S.J., Rognmo, O., Stolen, T.O., Bye, A., Haram, P.M., et al. Aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome: a pilot study. Circulation. 2008; 118: 346-354.

Rojas R, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Jiménez-Corona A, Shamah-Levy T, Rauda J, Ávila-Burgos L, Villalpando S, Lazcano E. Metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults. Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Salud Pública de México. 2010; 52(1):s11-s18.

Olaíz-Fernández G, Rivera-Dommarco J, Shamah-Levy T, Villalpando-Hernández S, et al. Encuesta nacional de salud y nutrición 2006. Cuernavaca, México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública.

Berggren JR, Hulver MW, Houmard JA. Fat as an endocrine organ: influence of exercise. Journal Applied Physiology. 2005;99: 757-764.

Capel F, Klimcakova E, Viguerie N, Roussel B, Vítkova M, Kovacikpva M, et al. Macrophages and adipocytes in human obesity, adipose tissue gene expression and insulin sensitivity during calorie restriction and weight stabilization. Diabetes. 2012; 58:1558-1567.

Christianson JL, Nicoloro S, Straubhaar J, Czech MP. Stearoyl CoA desaturase 2 is required for PPAR? expression and adipogenesis in cultured 3T3-L1 cells. J Biol Chem. 2007; 283: 2906-2916.

Curat CA. From blood monocytes to adipose tissue-resident macrophages: induction of diapedesis by human mature adipocytes. Diabetes. 2004; 53: 1285-1292

Sartipy P, Loskutoff DJ. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100: 7265-7270.

Leguisamo N, Lehnen AM, Machado U, Okamoto MM, Markoski MM, et al. GLUT4 content decreases along with insulin resistance and high levels of inflammatory markers in rats with metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2012;11: 100.

Kelley DE, Mokan M, Simoneau JA, Mandarino LJ. Interaction between glucose and free fatty acid metabolism in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest.1993; 92: 91-98.

Bouzakri K, Zierath JR. MAP4K4 gene silencing in human skeletal muscle prevents tumor necrosis factor-?-induced insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 7783-7789.

Palomo I, Moore R, Alarcón M, Rojas A, Mujica V, Hasbun S. Fisiopatología del estado protrombótico en el síndrome metabólico. Acta Médica Colombiana. 2009;32:80-84.

Moreno B, Zugasti A, Jiménez AI. Síndrome metabólico. Concepto, patogenia y diagnóstico. 2009 .Actitud clínica. Madrid, España, Médica Panamericana.

Funk SD, Yurdagul Jr A, Orr W. Hyperglycemia and endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis: lessons from type 1 diabetes. International Journal of Vascular Medicine. 2012; 1-19.

Teixeira E, Oliveira J, Páscoa J, Reis F. Regular physical exercise as a strategy to improve antioxidant and anti-inflamatory status: benefits in tipe 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Review article. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2012; 1-15.

Röckl KSC, Witczak CA, Goodyear JL. Diabetes, mitocondrias y ejercicio. Revista Española de Cardiología. 2008; 8: 27C-34C.

López J, Fernández A. Fisiología del ejercicio. 2006; Madrid, España:Editorial Médica Panamericana.

Henriksen EJ. Invited review: effects of acute exercise and exercise training on insulin resistance. Journal Applied Physiology. 2001;93:788-796.

Tall AR Exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk–how much is enough? N Engl J Med. 2001; 347: 1522-1524.

Haskell WL, Lee I-M, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health, update recommendation for adults from the American college of sports medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007; 116: 1081-1093.

Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Trand Z. Aerobic exercise and lipids and lipoproteins in women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int Journal Obese. 2005;13 (10): 1148-1164.

Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Roberts S, Haskell W. Efficacy of Aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Medicine. 2011; 9: 74.

Pattyn N, Cornelissen VA, Toghi SR, Vanhees L. The effect of exercise on the cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome, a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Sports Medicine. 2013;43:121-133.

Figueira FR, Umpierre D, Casali KR, Tetelbom PS, Henn NT, et al. Aerobic and combined exercise sessions reduce glucose variability in type 2 diabetes: crossover randomized trial. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e5773.

Goldberg IJ. Diabetic dyslipidemia: causes and consequences. Journal Clinical Endocrinolgy Metabolic. 2001; 86: 965-971.

Chudyk A, Petrella RJ. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34:1228-1237.

Ten Brinke R, Dekker N, de Groot M, Ikkersheim D. Lowering HbA1c in type 2 diabetics results in reduced risk of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Care Diabetes. 2008; 2: 45-49.

Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal American Heart Association. 2013; 2: e004473.

Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, et al. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Agespecific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002; 360(9349):1903-13.

Katzmarzyk PT, Leon AS, Wilmore JH, et al. Targeting the metabolic syndrome with exercise: evidence from the HERITAGE Family Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(10): 1703-9.

Anderssen SA, Carroll S, Urdal P, et al. Combined diet and exercise intervention reverses the metabolic syndrome in middleaged males: results from the Oslo Diet and Exercise Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007; 17(6): 687-95.

Adams, O.P. The impact of brief highintensity exercise on blood glucose levels. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Trgets and Therapy. 2013; 6: 113-122.

Alomari, M.A., Shqair, D.M., Khabour, O.F., Alawneh, K., Nazzal, M.I., Keewan E.F. (2012). The clinical and nonclinical values of nonexercise estimation of cardiovascular endurance in young asymptomatic individuals. The scientific world journal, 2012, 1-9.

Arciero, P.J., Vukovich, M.D., Holloszy, J.O., Racette, S.B., Kort, W.M. Comparison of short-term diet and exercise on insulin action in individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance. Journal Applied Physiology. 1999;86, 1930-1935.

Bacci, E., Negri, C., Trombetta, M., Zanolin, M.E., Lanza, M. et al. Differences in the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes: result from the RAED2 randomized trial. Plos One. ;7(12): 1-8.

Beltrán-Sánchez, H., Crimmins, E.M., Teruel, G.M., Thomas, D. Links between childhood and adults social circumstances and obesity and hypertension in the Mexican population. Journal Aging Medicine. ;23(7):1141-1165.

Bello, A.J., Owusu-Boakye, M., Adegoke, B.O.A., Adjei, D.N. (2011). Effects of aerobic exercise on selected physiological parameters and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of General Medicine, 4, 723-727.

Dutheil, F., Lac, G., Courteix, D., Doré, E., Chapier, R., Roszyk, L., et al. (2012). Treatment of metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journa, 11, 72.

Evans, E.M., Van, R.E., Binder, E.F., Williams, D.B., Ehsani, A.A., Kohrt, W.M. (2001). Effects of HRT and exercise training on insuline action, glucose tolerance, and body composition in older women. Journal Applied Physiology, 90, 2033-2040.

Fisher, G., Hunter, G.R., Gower, B.A. (2012). Aerobic exercise training conserves insulin sensitivity for 1 yr following weigth loss in overweight women. Journal Applied Physiology. 112, 688-693.

Ginsberg, H.N., MacCallum, P.R. (2009). The obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus pandemic: part I. increased cardiovascular disease risk and the importance of atherogenic dyslipidemia in persons with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal Cardiometabolic Syndrome 4(2), 113-119.

Gomes, E. (2012). High-intensity interval training and hypertension: maximizing the benefits of exercise?. American Journal Cardiovascular Disease, 2(2), 102-110.

Henriksen, E.J. (2001). Invited review: effects of acute exercise and exercise training on insulin resistance. Journal Applied Physiology. 93, 788-796.

Kirwan, J.P., O´Gorman, D., Evans, W.J. (1998). A moderate glycemic meal before endurance exercise can enhance performance. Jornal Applied Physiology, 84, 53-59.

Kwon, H.R., Min, K..W., Ahn, H.J., Seok, H.G., Lee, J.H., Park, G.S., et al. Effects of Aerobic exercise vs resistance training on endotelial function in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes and metabolism journal. ;35: 364-373.

Madden, K.M., Lockhart, C., Cuff, D., Potter, T.F., Meneilly, G.S. Short-term aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness in older adults with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Diabetes care. 2009; 32: 1531-1535.

Menshikova, E.V., Ritov, V.B., Ferrell, R.E., Azuma, K., Goodpaster, B.H., Kelley, D.E. Characteristics of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis induced by moderateintensity exercise and weight loss in obesity. Journal Applied Physiology. 2007; 103: 21-27.

O´Neill, H.M. AMPK and exercise: glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes and Metabolism Journal. 2013; 37: 1-21.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.28957/rcmfr.v27n2a2


© Rev Col Med Fis Reh 

DOI: 10.28957/rcmfr

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

La Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación no es responsable de las opiniones aquí expresadas.

Reservados todos los derechos. El contenido de la presente publicación no puede ser reproducido, ni transmitido por ningún procedimiento electrónico, mecánico, incluyendo fotocopia, grabación magnética, ni registrado por ningún sistema de recuperación de información, en ninguna forma, ni por ningún medio, sin la previa autorización por escrito del titular de los derechos de explotación de la misma.

Cualquier forma de reproducción, distribución, comunicación pública o transformación de esta obra solo puede ser realizada con la autorización previa de la Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Física y Rehabilitación.

Información de contacto

Teléfono: (57-1) 6350840
Fax: (57-1) 6350841
Dirección: Calle 94 No. 15 - 32 Oficina 603
Bogotá - Colombia